By William J. Hardcastle, Janet Mackenzie Beck
During the international, there are phoneticians who've been motivated by means of the educating, examine, and writings of John Laver. Many have labored with him for my part, and many of the members to this publication are individuals with whom he has had detailed hyperlinks or whose involvement represents an appreciation of the breadth of Laver's pursuits. whereas the e-book is intended to be a tribute to John Laver, the themes were selected to supply an outline of a few key matters in phonetics, with illuminating contributions from essentially the most influential teachers within the box. Contributing to this festschrift are William Hardcastle, Janet Mackenzie Beck, Peter Ladefoged, John J. Ohala, F. Gibbon, Anne Cutler, Mirjam Broersma, Helen Fraser, Peter F. MacNeilage, Barbara L. Davis, R. E. Asher, E. L. Keane, G. J. Docherty, P. Foulkes, Janet Fletcher, Catherine Watson, John neighborhood, Ailbhe N? Chasaide, Christer Gobl, John H. Esling, Jimmy G. Harris, and Francis Nolan.
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Extra resources for A Figure of Speech: A Festschrift for John Laver
10. An enlargement of the part of Fig. 5 from time 11,500 to 19,000 msec. The arrows mark onsets of stressed syllables and decreases of external intercostal activity. 20 • LADEFOGED used for speech. There is no way in which these actions can be con sidered as always being the same muscular gesture. Sometimes they involve pulling the rib cage down, and sometimes they simply allow it to collapse more rapidly. Concluding this section, we note that stressed syllables may or may not have a greater jaw opening, they may or may not have a greater intensity or a higher pitch, and they may or may not have bursts of internal intercostals activity.
Three areas of experimental phonetics. London: Ox ford University Press. Ladefoged, P (1976). How to put one person's tongue inside another person's mouth. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 60, S77. , & Lindau, M. (1989). Modeling articulatory-acoustic rela tions. Journal of Phonetics, 17, 99-106. Ladefoged, R, & Loeb, G. (2002). pdf. , &Lindblom, B. (1972). Numerical simulation of vowel qual ity systems: The role of perceptual contrast. Language, 48, 839-862. Maddieson, I. (1984).
Tendencies among vowels are often more concerned with the sounds rather than the articulations. (There are exceptions to this notion, accounting for the 'often' in the previous sentence. ) Johnson, Ladefoged, and Lindau (1993) have also argued in favor of vowels having auditory targets. They point to the differ ences in the way in which individuals manipulate the tongue and jaw to produce the same vowel sounds, and propose an auditory theory of speech production. However, it must be admitted that their evidence still allows for a particular vocal tract shape to be the goal of the speech centers when producing a particular vowel.