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By Valeria Bello, Belachew Gebrewold

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Extra info for A Global Security Triangle: European, African and Asian Interaction (Routledge GARNET series: Europe in the World)

Sample text

The inter-­regional agreements also take different forms, distinguishing between pure interregional co-­operation (involving formal regional blocs, such as EU–Mercosur) and hybrid inter-­ regionalism (co-­operation between a formal regional community and a group of countries that do not constitute a formal regional entity). Inter-­regional co-­operation takes a variety of forms and policy instruments, ranging across aid programmes, regional trade agreements, support for regional integration and more comprehensive regional strategies – sometimes embracing all of these components.

The EPA negotiations have largely followed the traditional, hierarchical method, driven by the heavy hand of the European Commission to secure reciprocal market access, while enforcing product standards and competition rules. The highly institutionalised European model of regional integration has been emulated in the continental-­level African Union, and to some extent in the sub-­regional economic communities. Yet at the sub-­regional level, regional economic communities have developed in an ad hoc manner, with ill matched institutional structures and political strategies – a case in point being the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), where the fifteen member states decided on market liberalisation but then failed to realise substantive policies for the agreed-­upon free movement of people.

The EPA negotiations have largely followed the traditional, hierarchical method, driven by the heavy hand of the European Commission to secure reciprocal market access, while enforcing product standards and competition rules. The highly institutionalised European model of regional integration has been emulated in the continental-­level African Union, and to some extent in the sub-­regional economic communities. Yet at the sub-­regional level, regional economic communities have developed in an ad hoc manner, with ill matched institutional structures and political strategies – a case in point being the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), where the fifteen member states decided on market liberalisation but then failed to realise substantive policies for the agreed-­upon free movement of people.

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