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By Gail Maria Coelho

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Extra info for A grammar of Betta Kurumba

Example text

Infinitive noka /no-w-ka/ ‘to look’ vi. Synchrony no /no-w-n/ ‘as/when N looks’ c) Categories that require a realis theme – regular realis theme is used in these three categories (with realis formative /-s/): i. Perfective: noso /no-s-o/ ‘She looked’ ii. Transition nosa /no-s-a/ ‘upon looking’ iii. Contingency nosnu / no-s-nu/ ‘if N looks’ d) Categories that require a realis theme – Special realis theme is used in these categories: i. Progressive /-o/ nyrod /nyr-o-d/ ‘N is looking’ ii.

F. yarta nilja potta nada arisa kuso /yari-t-a/ /nili-j-a/ /por-t-a/ /nai-d-a/ /aru-s-a/ /kui-s-o/ ‘call-realis-3sg’ ‘play-realis-3sg’ ‘carry-realis-3sg’ ‘walk-realis-3sg’ ‘sleep-realis-3sg’ ‘drink-realis-3sg’ ‘She called’ ‘She played’ ‘She carried’ ‘She walked’ ‘She slept’ ‘She drank’ 4) a. b. c. d. e. f. yarpa nilwa porwa napa arwa kuyrpa /yari-pu-a/ /nili-w-a/ /por-w-a/ /nai-pu-a/ /aru-w-a/ /kuyri-pu-a/ ‘call-irrealis-3sg’ ‘play-irrealis-3sg’ ‘carry-irrealis-3sg’ ‘walk-irrealis-3sg’ ‘sleep-irrealis-3sg’ ‘drink-irrealis-3sg’ ‘She calls’ ‘She plays’ ‘She carries’ ‘She walks’ ‘She sleeps’ ‘She drinks’ Verbs in the strong-s-class show a complication in realis theme formation: they have two realis themes, the regular realis theme and the special realis theme.

Because only older generation speakers use distinct suffixes in the two paradigms, a formal distinction between present and past perfect is encoded only by these speakers. Further, because the st two paradigms differ only in the 1 singular and the plural, the distinction between present perfect and past perfect can be made only in these person categories. This distinction is shown in Table 10. 2. Number markers The second set of subject agreement suffixes encodes number alone, shown in (7). 7) /-d/ /-/ Singular Plural These suffixes are derived from the singular and plural nominalizers /-d, -/ (described in Chapter 5).

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