By Ian D. Armour
A background of japanese Europe 1740-1918: Empires, countries and Modernisation offers a accomplished, authoritative account of the sector in the course of a afflicted interval that complete with the 1st global warfare. Ian Armour specializes in the 3 significant subject matters that experience outlined jap Europe within the glossy interval - empire, nationhood and modernisation - while chronologically tracing the emergence of japanese Europe as a unique inspiration and position. particular assurance is given to the Habsburg, Ottoman, German and Russian Empires that struggled for dominance in this time.
In this intriguing new version, Ian Armour accommodates findings from new learn into the character and origins of nationalism and the makes an attempt of supranational states to generate dynastic loyalties in addition to strategies of empire. Armours insightful consultant to early japanese Europe considers the real figures and governments, analyses the numerous occasions and discusses the socio-economic and cultural advancements which are the most important to a rounded knowing of the quarter in that era.
Features of this re-creation include:
- an absolutely up to date and enlarged bibliography and notes
- 8 worthy maps
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Additional info for A History of Eastern Europe 1740-1918: Empires, Nations and Modernisation
According to these thinkers, there was a ‘natural’ contract in societies between rulers and ruled: in return for physical protection and just government, a monarch’s subjects 33 A History of Eastern Europe 1740–1918 implicitly accepted his absolute title to govern. 2 As a consequence it had more of an impact on Eastern Europe, especially Russia, than did the writings of the French Enlightenment, even if the latter were well enough known to East European rulers by the mid-century. In addition to the question of which strand of the Enlightenment was most influential, there is the problem of explaining practical reforms in Eastern Europe which preceded the very concept of Enlightenment.
The teachings of Martin Luther proved popular among the German population of Prussia, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and the Baltic coast, as well as in Bohemia and Moravia; as an essentially German import, however, Lutheranism made rather fewer converts among Poles, Czechs and Hungarians. Calvinism, by contrast, was initially quite successful among the Polish and Hungarian gentry, largely for political and social 23 A History of Eastern Europe 1740–1918 reasons: it was not only associated with freedom of conscience and hence political liberty but also with a sense of being the elect or chosen by God.
In Poland–Lithuania, Stanisław August was a consciously enlightened king, determined to reform the Commonwealth in order to forestall its further decline. All these rulers, in their different ways, pursued a more rational, efficient administration, based on clearly codified legal systems. They strove for economic rationalisation and development as the basis for this, as well as the indispensable precondition for financing a strong standing army. They saw education and cultural advance as essential for training the bureaucracy required for this more complicated state and society.