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By Harold. Spencer

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Additional info for A Kanarese grammar : with graduated exercises

Sample text

SYNTAX Use of the Crude Form of Nouns In addition to the usage referred to on page 51, there are several other ways in which the crude form of nouns may be used instead of the various cases. We have already noticed the use of the crude form for the accusative case, pp. 15, 21 . The following illustrations cover all the cases : (1) Crude Form instead of Nominative, adJdJ71 2JOd4J the boy came (for ~JdJrt~J zJod~J) ; -ds czaJ1 ig- zli4d3 this dog bites (for -14s ~O9JO3JJ ~d z~4t~J) . (2) Crude Form instead of Accusative.

3. ~'~Ji~J7j~J a~e3o3J o'SZoJTWJ L3~oc L3(dt$ -~ 4 ) CS6F~a al , ~~5 . r3~da3J 6. The termination tQ or Q-J added to a word gives to the 7. sentence in which it occurs an interrogative meaning. The 8 . s~~J3e, ;;~Ndo ~JJ~o3J~~ 3,Qesea3J . 9 . e~~o3JJ m:;etJ ; finite verb is the word to which the termination is usually added, e3s~ez~o3JJ z~~~~z3~~J . 10 . , tl w7i~i~d ? is the servant working? When as, av~09J~u0L3 7jS J J u 0 L 3 7 j S i3o'JL~JTt~~J d 1E~~* E;9d8A the finite verb is omitted in a sentence the particle is added to md 12 .

2 Or dsaWddo . P, 3 .. THE PAST TENSE OF SOME COMMON IRREGULAR VERBS As we have seen, all verbs ending in em have their presents and future tenses and the imperative mood in the style of but some very common verbs are irregular in the forms of the past. Amongst these are 'ate (past tense, 'ad NJ, W~ . . with the same endings as dzDad'J) Z4J (past tense, uodNJ . . ) -ddJ `bring' (past tense ~oc3,NJ . ) 4,ri)d3 `give' (past tense, 4jaU NJ . ) wL~J 'feel' (past tense, tM r) . . ) and ad,) `place' (past tense, 'a~l iJ .

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