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By I. Gindel

A scarcity of water exists, not just within the arid areas of the realm, yet even in a few reasonably humid climates. this example is a end result of water require­ ments for agriculture and in quantities more than the traditional surplus. Even in Europe there's elevated anxiousness over the kingdom of water reserves, and shortages are forecast for the close to destiny if keeps to extend. prior to now 50 years within the usa, water use has elevated approximately two times as speedy because the cost of inhabitants development, and shortages have already seemed in a few areas. the necessity to preserve declining water assets which has turn into obvious during the last few a long time has led numerous investigators to finish that vegetation with a excessive expense of transpiration endanger water assets, and the expansion of such crops must never be inspired. a few imagine that bushes withdraw extra water from the soil than different plant species and evaporate it excessively throughout the stomata of leaves. THORNTHWAITE and HARE (1955) defined transpiration at the similar thermo­ dynamic foundation as evaporation, and calculated its fee, utilizing DALTON'S legislations or alterations thereof. In spite ofthe many earlier and current investigations into the issues of transpiration, the organic elements of this crucial procedure remains to be poorly understood.

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Extra info for A New Ecophysiological Approach to Forest-Water Relationships in Arid Climates

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Global radiation, which includes direct and diffuse radiation falling on a horizontal area, was measured with the Epply Pyranometer. 5 microns. Leaf moisture percentage was calculated on a dry-weight basis, after drying the leaves for 24 hours at 100 c e. To avoid misleading results, I-year old full-sized leaves were chosen in accordance with ACKLEY'S findings (1954), that in young leaves the amount of dry matter changes during growth. CHALK'S method (1930), was used for following cambial activity.

Pinus haiepensis. 27 years old. Planted in soft limestone on the hills of Judea, Superficial and horizontal ramification of root system 30- 50 cm deep; only one root penetrates into a horizontal soil pocket 85 cm deep . 35 The differences in edaphic moisture and its variations with depth were examined under the following species: Pinus halepensis, P. brutia, Schinus molle, Cupressus pyramidalis, C. horizontalis, and the indigenous, woody vegetation in the hills belonging to the Mediterranean maqui.

The majority of its roots spread horizontally throughout the superficial layer of soil, often reaching no deeper than those of some natural herbaceous perennials (Fig. 17). Three consecutive drought years (1956/57-1959/60) created favorable conditions for investigating the degree to which soil moisture was exhausted under the canopy of the forest planting, and in open areas covered by seasonal grasses. For these years the relative effectiveness of rainfall was determined by calculating the aridity index; it was one-third as great as for the three previous years (1953/54-1955/56) when there was normal rainfall (GINDEL, 1966).

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