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By Keith Richardson, Paul Carling

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Extra resources for A Typology of Sculpted Forms in Open Bedrock Channels (GSA Special Paper 392)

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A) Oblique sloping furrows. A common feature of bedrock channels with margins of moderate slope (between ~10° and 40°) is parallel-sided furrows that slope down the channel margin at an oblique angle (Fig. 64). These furrows may occur in groups of parallel individuals. The rims may be cuspate or rounded. The flow structures contained within these furrows are at present a matter of conjecture, but it is hypothesized here that the furrows are orientated obliquely to the local flow direction, which is thought to be similar to the direction of the channel, and that the rim nearest the thalweg acts as a defect, causing flow separation.

River Lune (Halton), UK. Flow from top to bottom. Fine-grained sandstone. Scale is 60 cm long. flow along the runnel they are in, rather than to flow parallel to the main channel (if different), and follow any changes in the direction of the runnel relative to the main channel with distance downstream. This observation demonstrates that low-stage flow within the runnel is responsible for the generation of sculpted forms, and that it remains geomorphologically effective, possibly by maintaining a transcritical state (see Discussion).

Camera bag, 20 cm wide, for scale. A typology of sculpted forms in open bedrock channels (ii) lel-sided furrow of repetitive morphology (Fig. 57). 1d), if present, on the bedrock surface on either side of the compound furrow. Sometimes, a regular compound furrow is formed from a series of potholes in which the exit furrow from one pothole leads directly into the next pothole. Rarely, compound furrows are not linear, but form a zigzag pattern in plan view, with each component furrow meeting its neighbor at a high angle.

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