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By H. Ruthenberg

In quantity 2 of the "Afrika-Studien" an appraisal of the rural improvement coverage in Tanganyika (now Tanzania) from 1950 to 1963 used to be made. This document is a continuation of the paintings in East Africa, with the emphasis mendacity on a tentative quantitative evaluate of prices and merits of smallholder improvement. There are few nations in Africa south of the Sahara the place as many and as a variety of measures for the promoting of small­ holder farming were attempted as constantly and intensively as in Kenya. specifically the "Swynnerton Plan" resulted in the employment of considerable sums in African farming. many of the ways were hugely good fortune­ ful, others now not. it's the objective of this report back to tell approximately goals and associations, tools and problems, expenditures and advantages. Prof. Dr. EMIL WOERMANN Institut fiir landwirtschaftliche Betriebs- und Landarbeitslehre, Gottingen Acknowledgements As traditional with stories of this nature, my major debt is to a number of smallholders, settlers, scheme managers, Agricultural officials and Instruc­ tors who so willingly mentioned their issues of me and therefore supplied the knowledge on which this record relies. i'm so much thankful for the help rendered by means of some of the Departments of the Kenya govt. A debt of gratitude is owed relatively to the Fritz Thyssen beginning, Cologne, which supplied the cash and to the Ifo-Institute, Munich, which gives the institutional framework for German monetary learn paintings in East Africa. most useful recommendation and feedback used to be given by way of Mr. ]. D.

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The basic security for a short-term or medium-term loan was seen in the 23 proper selection of applicants, careful planning, and the close supervision of the farmer's progress. This, of course, took much time. Nevertheless, in spite of the care in selection, a number of court proceedings had to be instituted for the recovery of outstanding loan repayments, and this took up a considerable proportion of the working hours of well paid government servants. However, much of the loan money was not recovered, partly because the British Administration, shortly before independence, shied away from unpopular measures.

It therefore developed a follow-up process, which had three stages: ~) - A minimum standard layout was recommended for all farms, which involved (1) a basic soil conservation layout and (2) the siting of buildings so that they would not obstruct subsequent development. - A simple farm layout was the next step, but only for those who applied for it. It involved - the siting of a homestead and vegetable garden area; - the siting and pegging out of an area for permanent crops such as coffee or tea; - the division of the cultivable parts of the farm into a number of fields which might be used for arable crops, or grass, or semi-permanent crops such as pyrethrum and pineapples.

The explanation probably lies with the low labour efficiency during the working hours. Farmers and their helpers are obviously working unsystematically. Observing them, one gains the impression that most of the work could be achieved with less physical effort in a fraction of the time simply by using proper tools and an appropriate working rhythm. But repeated attempts to introduce better tools have almost always failed. Those who employ paid labour are usually not accustomed to organise the working day and to supervise their men.

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