By M.S.C. Okolo
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Additional resources for African Literature as Political Philosophy (Africa in the New Millennium)
It is this union that becomes a civil society or a city. : 186). Society and sovereign come into existence together as a result of the covenant. There are two aspects of the social contract. First, the people agree among themselves to give up their rights. Second, they authorize a person or assembly of men to rule over them. In other words, the sovereign authority is not part of the agreement. Also the form of constitution, monarchic, democratic or aristocratic, established by the covenant is not important.
He sees division of any kind as likely to lead to a divided sovereignty within the state, which will inevitably result in political instability in society. For order to be maintained in society, authority must be centred in the state. In Hobbes, there are no transcendental moral laws; instead, the sovereign is above the law. Three Hobbes’s social contract appears to take a lot of things for granted, chief among them his supposition that human understanding will compel men to see the need to leave the state of nature.
This lasts till the age of twenty. Those who succeed will form the auxiliary class, while those who show real competence move on to the third stage, devoted to profound intellectual pursuits. Here, initiates acquire true knowledge. To round oﬀ his education, the philosopher-king will undergo apprenticeship from thirty-ﬁve to ﬁfty, when the best will reach the vision of the Good and be ready to direct the aﬀairs of the state. In this highly regimented, formalized and controlled system of education, it appears that Plato made no allowances for individual creativity, originality and initiative.