Download After Thought: The Computer Challenge To Human Intelligence by James Bailey PDF

By James Bailey

Through the 1st fifty years of the pc revolution, scientists were attempting to application digital circuits to procedure info an identical manner people do. Doing so has reassured us all that underlying each new desktop strength, regardless of how miraculously quick or complicated, are human proposal methods and good judgment. yet state-of-the-art desktop scientists are coming to work out that digital circuits relatively are alien, that the adaptation among the human brain and laptop strength isn't in basic terms one in every of measure (how fast), yet of kind(how). the writer means that pcs “think” most sensible while their “thoughts” are allowed to emerge from the interaction of thousands of tiny operations all interacting with one another in parallel. Why then, if desktops deliver to the desk such very assorted strengths and weaknesses, are we nonetheless attempting to application them to imagine like people? a piece that levels commonly over the historical past of rules from Galileo to Newton to Darwin but is simply as cozy within the state of the art global of parallel processing that's at this very second yielding a brand new type of intelligence, After notion describes why the true computing device age is simply beginning.

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Geometric diagram courtesy of the Trustees of the Boston Public Library. P. Kraus catalogue Monumenta Codicum Manuscriptorum, p. 44, with permission. PART ONE OF" TH-E BOOK OF" NATURE - fl· • LACE , ~~ ..... x:8.. ,.. 'T}e/J. ;;i)"» ,TOln-u'l"« :T",pir~ . eNlXtT"l~ V ... ( tU rl/v. :'" "'T... 0>. -'j. .... " The reason the Greeks were successful in mathematically orienting themselves in their universe, but not in physically moving the earth, was that the reference point did not have to be real to be effective.

For classical scientists, the vocabulary of rate of change, or pace, was out of reach because they had no clocks. Similarly, for Industrial Age scientists, the vocabulary of adaptation was out of reach because they had no electronic computers and few data to train on. The new adaptive maths presuppose massive amounts of computing power, far more than was available even fifty years ago, when all computers were still people. More fundamentally, the new intermaths presuppose computers that are willing to change their minds over and over again, holding nothing constant.

In the words of his student: "The hypotheses of my learned teacher correspond so well to the phenomena that they may be mutually interchanged, like a good definition with the thing defined. " 10 Plato's dictum that computations spoke only to appearances, not realities, had in fact been a boon to the early practitioners. It gave them the freedom to innovate, grow, and mature. Within a few constraints, which they tended to agree with anyway, they could tryout all manner of weird formulations, justifying them not on their merits but simply on the results they produced.

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