By WHO Regional Office for Europe
Moment version The e-book offers air caliber guidance for 35 ingredients comprehend to give a contribution to the matter of pollution in Europe. during this moment version, the booklet has been significantly up to date and increased in keeping with new learn findings and advances within the method of threat overview. instruction values, that have been revised in a sequence of professional consultations, are meant to function a foundation for the institution of nationwide criteria and different keep watch over measures had to guard public overall healthiness.
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Additional resources for Air Quality Guidelines for Europe 2nd edition (WHO Regional Publications. European Series)
This may be considered appropriate where the mechanism of carcinogenesis in animals is likely to be a non-threshold phenomenon as indicated, for example, by the genotoxic activity of the compound in different short-term test systems. Quantitative assessment of carcinogenic potency The aim of quantitative risk assessment is to use information available from very specific study situations to predict the risk to the general population posed by exposure to ambient levels of carcinogens. In general, therefore, quantitative risk assessment includes the extrapolation of risk from relatively high dose levels (characteristic of animal experiments or occupational exposures), where cancer responses can be measured, to relatively low dose levels, which are of concern in environmental protection and where such 22 chapter 2 Box 1.
The pollutants selected for consideration here form only part of the vast range of air pollutants that have ecological effects. The project timetable 30 chapter 2 permitted only an evaluation of adverse effects on terrestrial plant life, although effects on animal and aquatic ecosystems are also of great concern in parts of Europe. Nevertheless, even this limited evaluation clearly indicates the importance attached to the ecological effects of such pollutants in the European Region. REFERENCES 1.
Different countries have different political, regulatory and administrative approaches, and legislative and executive activities can be carried out at various levels such as national, regional and local. Fully effective air quality management requires a framework that guarantees a consistent use of the guidelines in protecting public health 43 derivation of air quality standards and provides a transparent basis for decisions with regard to risk-reducing measures and abatement strategies. In establishing such a framework, several issues should be considered, such as legal aspects, the protection of specific populations at risk, the role of stakeholders in the process, cost–benefit analysis, and control and enforcement measures.