By Victoria Fromkin, Robert Rodman, Nina Hyams
Assuming no previous wisdom of linguistics, AN creation TO LANGUAGE, 9th variation, is suitable for various fields--including schooling, languages, psychology, anthropology, English, and educating English as a moment Language (TESL)--at either the undergraduate and graduate degrees. This thoroughly up to date variation keeps the transparent descriptions, humor, and seamless pedagogy that experience made the textual content a perennial best-seller, whereas including new info and routines that render each one subject clean, attractive, and present.
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Additional info for An Introduction to Language (9th Edition)
OTTO JESPERSEN, Language, Its Nature, Development, and Origin, 1922 Despite all evidence to the contrary, the idea that the earliest form of language was imitative, or echoic, was proposed up to the twentieth century. A parallel view states that language at first consisted of emotional ejaculations of pain, fear, surprise, pleasure, anger, and so on. ” Other hypotheses suggested that language arose out of the rhythmical grunts of men and women working together, or more charming, that language originated from song as an expressive rather than a communicative need.
Kilwardby was perhaps too much of a universalist. The particular properties of individual languages are relevant to the discovery of language universals, and they are of interest for their own sake. People attempting to study Latin, Greek, French, or Swahili as a second language are so focused on learning those aspects of the second language that are different from their native language that they may be skeptical of assertions that there are universal laws of language. Yet the more we investigate this question, the more evidence accumulates to support Chomsky’s view that there is a Universal Grammar (UG) that is part of the biologically endowed human 17 18 CHAPTER 1 What Is Language?
The shared knowledge—the common parts of the grammar—makes it possible to communicate through language. To the extent that the linguist’s description is a true model of the speakers’ linguistic capacity, it is a successful description of the grammar and of the language itself. Such a model is called a descriptive grammar. It does not tell you how you should speak; it describes your basic linguistic knowledge. It explains how it is possible for you to speak and understand and make judgments about well-formedness, and it tells what you know about the sounds, words, phrases, and sentences of your language.